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Posted: May 22 2010, 04:34 PM
68% Armaments Designer
Member No.: 710
Joined: 9-May 09
AN-95 Surface-to-Air Missile - The Empire of Ekraysia
Class: Surface-to-Air Missile, Anti-Ballistic Missile Missile (C and D versions)
Manufacturer: Karmen, NGWC
Length: 4.77m (without booster)
Warhead: 95kg Proximity-Fused High Explosive
Guidance: Semi-Active Radar Homing, + Infrared Homing at Terminal
Speed: 3425mph (5512kph/Mach 4.5)
Engine: Axon RM-220 Two-Stage Rocket Motor ( + Booster)
History & Design
Following the introduction of the finalised Sh89 'Sea Tiger' Close-In Weapons System in 1996 on Ekraysian ships, the vessels of the Imperial Ekraysian Navy at last had a good, general-purpose, reliable and potent short-range anti-air system. The seven-barrelled 37mm rotary cannon was particularly deadly even on a single-round basis and the missile component, the Sh89M 'Felix', was a short-range supersonic weapon that could engage missiles, aircraft and some surface targets at Mach 3.5, to 15,200 metres. It was also an effective ground-based weapon and its air-to-air variants were also operated by the Imperial Ekraysian Air Force.
That was that. Now, the Naval Guided Weapons Council, AGWC, could focus on the next step of modernising the Ekraysian guided missile arsenal, and the next logical step would be to come up with a replacement a number of trusty but aging missiles, to fill the medium and long-range seagoing surface-to-air missile roles. The Army Ordnance Corps also placed a request to see if this missile could be used in ground-to-air missile applications from dedicated SAM vehicles.
KARMEN Defence Conglomerate Systems, responsible for the Sh89 CIWS in its entirety, was selected to provide prototypes for this new system. The specifications set down were ambitious and at the top end of what was possible even then; a top speed of at least Mach 4, preferably nearer to Mach 4.5 or even above, while allowing for a top-of-the-range missile would not be excessively high-priced.
The Sea Dart's (the main comparison of the previous era, a weapon in service in the IEN) top speed was in the order of Mach 2. This was too slow, since Ekraysian bomber aircraft for one could outrun it (even though this was hardly relevant). A top speed of Mach 4-plus would ensure that, while the pilot might dodge it a few times, the missile would catch up with them before they could evade it long enough for its fuel to run out. It also gave the pilot of an enemy aircraft less time to evade it in the first place; higher speed gives the pilot less time to react.
The missile thus uses a standard two-stage solid-fuel rocket engine to propel it to Mach 4.5.
A longer range was also desirable, 55km in ideal conditions was too little. The Ekraysian admiralty wanted a realistic range, in good conditions, of one hundred kilometres which should ensure that an attacking aircraft would not get close enough to even get target lock. It should also have a higher engagement altitude, to reckon on about 85,000 feet or around 25,000 metres, and be able to defeat threats from around 8km minimum range, the range at which the 'Felix' missile would begin to lose effectiveness, against any airborne target except for ballistic missiles, a new very long range AAM/ABM missile system for which would be developed after the AN-95 project. However, the AN-95 was originally designed with ABM capability; this would only be realised, however, in the C and D versions, which is current Ekraysian issue.
For guidance, the missile uses the Ekraysian favourite Semi-Active Radar Homing, or SARH. The logic is simple: since the launch platform, originally intended to be a surface ship, would have a radar system which was capable of detecting, identifying as hostile and actively tracking the target, duplicating this on the missile is a weight-increasing, overly expensive waste of time. By using the aforementioned radar to guide the missile, the missile is made less prone to ECM, electronic countermeasures, jamming, and error in general due to failure of the electronics. Additionally, an IR seeker is used additionally at the terminal stage to add to accuracy.
Additionally, it has a 'swarm mode', in which, in a swarm of missiles launched, the missiles following the 'leader' shut down their guidance systems and follow it [the lead missile] to intercept distance at which point they 'reactivate'. This minimises the enemy's capability to affect the missile swarm by ECM or jamming almost completely.
AN-95A. Original variant for ship launch.
AN-95B. Modified for carriage by land-based TEL.
AN-95C. Version with ABM capability.
AN-95D. Version with ABM capability modified for carriage by land-based TEL.