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 SRAAM 'SteadyKiller', Visual Range Air to Air Missile (VRAAM)
Laissez-Faire
Posted: Apr 8 2012, 05:42 AM


5% Armaments Designer


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Posts: 103
Member No.: 1,310
Joined: 17-March 12



(Still adding to this, but I will go ahead and post.)

The SteadyKiller 1 (SK-1 or SRAAM-1) missile was designed as a lightweight, slow-speed, short-range, 'fire and forget' self-guided missile to be able to be effectively fired and carried from weight-sensitive platforms such as the Subsonic LFF-11.

Raw StatBlock - SRAAM-1
  • Weight: 68 kg
  • Length: 2.5 metres
  • Diameter: 114.3 mm
  • Blast type: Annular blast fragmentation
  • Warhead weight: 6.8
  • Propellant: Solid-fueled
  • Maximum operational range: 30 km (optimal) 35-40 km (maximum, tests only)
  • Effective operational range: 19 km
  • Statistical range: 30.8 nm
  • Maximum speed: 1.5 mach (optimal)
  • Guidance: Fire and forget infrared seeking
  • Steering: control geometry
Development information
The SK missile was developed under the need for a domestic supply customized to fit lightweight platforms, mainly that of the AG-3 and the LFF-11, both mainstay attack and fighter craft of many contractors in Laissez-Faire. Designers conceived of a reduced-weight missile that would be slower in speed, yet more accurate in it's range. The smaller weights of the platforms the SRAAM-1 meant that not only would the SK need to be independently guided, but it would have to be able to be reliable within visual range.

As such, the SRAAM-1 was intended for visual range operations, or near visual range operations not exceeding around 30 km. While test reports indicate in some situations it has been able to take out targets after it's stages have completed, and beyond near visual range, it has been noted the missile's low speed becomes more of a vulnerability after around 30 km, leading the designers to name it's optimal operational range at that distance.

Thrust and guidance
The SK missile is propelled by an ammonium perchlorate composite propellant rocket engine, which operates at thrust stages timed in seconds and optimized for low-speed and accuracy performance. The rocket engine maintains 445 newtons for one second after launch of the missile to clear the platform. After this, 10 seconds of 1,110 newtons of thrust are designed to acquire the target and make speed adjustments to optimize targeting. Afterwards, a slower stage provides a thrust level of 445 newtons for 100 seconds, after which the missile is unpowered (usually after anywhere from 35-40 km in tests).

The fire and forget guidance of the SK is based around an independent active radar guide. A major problem for early tests was optimization of low-weight and compact radar systems, and guaranteeing competitive accuracy that the design called for. However, the SRAAM/SK missile's guidance system departed from the infrared guided tradition and adapted itself to a radar-locking interface after the failures of cockpit guidance, however theoretically beneficial such guidance would be, were noted. The SK exponentially loses effectiveness against smaller targets, specifically at long ranges. Semi-active variants have been proposed in later SRAAM-2 missiles.

SRAAM-1 was later commissioned with an infrared seeker after proven ineffectiveness of the existing active radar systems. Infrared systems were also seen a more practical within visual range than radar systems, considering the independent nature of the missile.

Guidance Stats - SRAAM-1
  • Type: active infrared seeking
  • Field of view angle: 360 degrees
  • Aim strength ratio of control deflection: .05
Warhead

Warhead Stats - SRAAM-1
  • Type: Conventional
  • Blast yield: Annular fragmentation
  • Explosive type: High explosive
  • Weight: 6.8 kg
The light warhead of the SRAAM-1 missile is designed to match with the extended guidance systems and overall lightweight framework design of the SK/SRAAM missile concept. It's annular fragmentation design was incorporated after the varying success of the active radar guidance systems to allow for greater target elimination rates and improve overall accuracy, if precision could not be achieved by varying conditions and by the slow speed of the SRAAM-1.

Targeting
Targets are acquired in-cockpit by the missile, and the missile maintains active infrared guidance to the air target. The most effective targets are fairly large opposing/target aircraft, however fair effectiveness and tracking is given to targets such as fighters by it's slower speeds that allow for more accurate target acquisition and tracking in total, at least with manuverability in control geometry steering.

Production
The solid propellant of the rocket engine is made from a class of propellant made to be repetitively produced on a scale sufficient to aerospace applications such as air-to-air missiles, specifically those in dogfights (visual range targeting)

Variants
SRAAM-1 B
- Uses infrared guide for closer range acquisition in an attempt to improve precision and accuracy. Larger annular fragmentation warhead (7.5 kg) is utilized. Improvements were minimal.
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Vault X
Posted: Apr 8 2012, 01:52 PM


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I'm not sure if there are steerable radars small enough to fit into your missile and yet capable of guiding it against a fighter. It doesn't matter, though, because IR is better anyway, radars are heavier and much easier to fool.
The point of RF missiles is to lock on to targets your plane's radar can see, you don't have one, so even getting a lock BVR is a long gamble. Missile radars are very basic, they can't do most things fighter radars can, just keep pointing their small antenna towards the target so the missile knows where to go.

The third stage is useless, just put more power into the basic thrust motor. Boost/sustain means things like 2+8 seconds for short range. 100 seconds in close air combat is like King George V to Queen Elizabeth II.
Also, motors can't be used to "make speed adjustments", you just light it up and it burns till it's all out, there is no control over it. Boost-sustain is just a wide hole in a piece of rubber, followed by a narrow hole. Only a bit more complex in practice (multiple perforations, star-shaped holes, etc).

Mach 1.5 is very slow. Most planes will have little trouble evading, they don't need to go faster than M1.5 for that, only deny you enough time to close the distance before the plane can break the lock or you lose the kinetic advantage. Once the lock is broken (i.e. the missile even briefly fails to keep its beam pointed at the target), it's over.

If you're going for the kill, use IR, it's not like your small radar is going to be any use at ranges where IR isn't. If your goal is to be a nuisance, I don't know with any certainty, but would speculate that a passive RF homing device can do better. At least you can make your opponent switch off his radar so he can't fire radar guided missiles at you. Or make half these missiles IR, the other half passive RF, that should be annoying.


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Laissez-Faire
Posted: Apr 8 2012, 02:10 PM


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I should have said 'acceleration adjustments' with rockets- I will fix that for clarity.

Additionally, I'll incorporate infrared seeking design. Active radar guidance seems not to be so adaptive at autonomous guidance as I thought.

If my judgement is correct, that final stage should be active after around a 20 km range, which is likely outside of visual range.
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Vault X
Posted: Apr 8 2012, 05:49 PM


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At 20km, all your fuel should have burned out. Before 20km even.

Your longest-range scenario is this: you get to tail a bomber or a fighter on a clear night, spot the heat from its engines through your night vision goggles (helos use them, why not you?) from about 21km, go full speed and correct your course, from about 20km manage to pinpoint it to your missile and fire it.

20km at Mach 1.5 is 45 seconds. But you'll have to go 55km to chase, and that's 125 seconds. Your engines are out in 112, there's 1.5km left for you to fall down - you don't have enough speed to finish the chase. A weak sustain engine will not let you chase an opponent. Not to mention you'll lose him to countermeasures by then. It's even enough time to terrain-mask.

20km is about the end of the visual range at CAVU. It's also about as far as you want anything to do with your missile. Unless you have binoculars in your cockpit or something, IDK. Don't expect your missile to detect, track, identify and engage a target you can't see, it doesn't happen.


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Laissez-Faire
Posted: Apr 8 2012, 08:52 PM


5% Armaments Designer


Group: Members
Posts: 103
Member No.: 1,310
Joined: 17-March 12



The entire concept is based on within visual range capacity.

The 30 km range is under maximum potential ('if the stars align'), a scenario that's never expected to happen on the battlefield.
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Kyiv
Posted: Apr 8 2012, 10:08 PM


My tank is umbrella!


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Joined: 3-June 08



Then don't list it.


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QUOTE
i think it is you that is the fool.My education was brought with money, not from wikipedia!


QUOTE (Rich and Corporations @ Apr 16 2012, 10:06 PM)
Oh my god, everyone is either wrong or fucking stupid.
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