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Posted: Aug 7 2010, 12:18 AM
Most Consistent Desginer (2012)
Member No.: 336
Joined: 25-April 08
Composite Sandwich Panel
Composite Sandwich Panel
U-3Ti alloy DU mesh
SiC encased in Ti-6Al-4V
Adversus is the latest in the LAIX ARMS line-up of armor solutions for tanks.
Adversus starts with Exote, which is rated as being effective against small arms armor piercing rounds (including 15 mm armor piercing rounds). Exote is Titanium Carbide ceramic particles in a metallic matrix. In this case, the metallic matrix is RHA, making it ductile, which greatly improves its multi-hit capabilities while preserving typical ceramic terminal ballistic properties -- high hardness and ablation. Because the ceramic has been suspended in matrix form instead of sintered together, it is cheaper than ceramic tile armor arrays, while providing calculated protection levels equivalent to a 1.77x thickness efficiency, and 2.25x mass efficiency, compared to RHA alone. This process means that Exote is classified as a Metal Matrix Composite, or MMC. Exote-Armour was invented and first manufactured by Exote Ltd., a Finnish corporation.
Upon impact by an armor-piercing round, Exote’s Titanium Carbide particles wear down the round via ablation, until the round is effectively turned into dust. Exote also spreads out the energy of the round, and distributes it over a larger area, thus fully neutralizing impact. The damage area is only 20-30% larger than the caliber of the hit, and the rest of the plate will still remain protective. This makes Exote a multi-hit armor, which provides excellent protection from small arms, with a lighter weight than RHA alone. The Exote is also used to contain the rest of the armor package.
Lamonian innovations in the form of extruded para-organic resilin are also used. Resilin is an elastomeric fibrous compound found within the musculature of insects. To quote Dr Chris Elvin of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation;
Resilin shown under UV at 360nm
Using genetically modified E.Coli bacteria, the CSIRO team was able to synthetically generate a soluble Resilin protein, based upon the cloning and expression of the first exon of the Drosophila CG15920 gene. By means of a CSIRO-patented process, the resulting resilin rubber was shown to have structurally near-perfect resilience, with a 97 percent post-stress recovery. The next-nearest competitors are synthetic polybutadiene ‘superball’ high resilience rubber (80 per cent) and elastin (90 per cent). The cross-linking process itself is remarkably simple. It needs only three components - the protein, generally lactose, or a near analog, a metal ligand complex, ruthenium in this case, and an electron acceptor. The mixture is then flashed with visible light of 452 nanometers wavelength to form the polymer - within 20 seconds, the proteins will be cross-linked into a matrix with remarkable tensile strength.
Like it's Acerbitas (and Acerbitas-B ) cousin, the Resilin used in Adversus is intended, as with NERA generally, to warp, bend or bulge the Aermet 100 plates upon impact. As the plates move, bullets are subjected to transverse and shear forces, diminishing their penetration, and shaped-charge weapons find their plasma jets unable to readily focus on a single area of armor. In the case of segmented projectiles, the transverse forces are less pronounced, compared to unitary variants, but the movement of the plate essentially forces the projectile to penetrate twice, again lowering total impact upon the platform protected.
The Resilin components are layered with Aermet 100 plates. The Aermet plates are angled, as penetrators striking angled plates will bend into the direction the plate is facing. This action on the part of the penetrator serves to significantly reduce the impact of the penetrator itself, as the penetrator expends energy on this bending motion, instead of being allowed to focus all of it's kinetic energy on a single spot on the armor.
Aermet 100 alloy features high hardness and strength, coupled with high ductility. Aermet 100 alloy is used for applications requiring high strength, high fracture toughness, high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue. Aermet 100 is more difficult to machine than other steels; Aermet being a specially graded martensitic steel, and requires the use of carbide tools.
Composite Sandwich Panels are used both to increase the structural integrity of the armor, as well as to catch fragments that are created by enemy fire. The outside of the panels are composed of one centimeter thick plates of Aermet 100 alloy. One such plate is placed on either side of the panel. The interior of each panel consists of a three centimeter thick honeycomb of hexagonal celled, thickness oriented Aermet 100, where each cell of the honeycomb measures six millimeters across. Each hexagonal cell is filled with a mix of sintered Titanium Diboride (TiB2) ceramic tiles, and vinylester resin. This adds additional ceramic protection to the armor.
Ti-6Al-4V is a very popular alloy of Titanium. Designed for high tensile strength applications in the 1000 MPa range, the alloy has previously been used for aerospace, marine, power generation and offshore industries applications. Ti-6Al-4V offers all-round performance for a variety of weight reduction applications. It is used to sandwich the Depleted Uranium mesh, encase the SiC ceramic, and as the majority of the armor after that.
As chemically pure Depleted Uranium is very brittle, and is not as strong as alloys, U-3Ti alloy is used for the DU mesh. This alloy has a density of 18.6 grams per cubic centimeter. The alloy displays higher strength, and less brittleness than chemically pure Depleted Uranium.
Silicon Carbide encased in Ti-6Al-4V comes after this, with the Titanium alloy being used to encapsulate the SiC ceramic, as well as assist in hydrostatic prestressing, which is known to extend interface defeat. The SiC is isostatically pressed into the heated matrix; which more securely binds the ceramic into place.
Interface Defeat is a phenomenon observed when a hypervelocity penetrator strikes a sufficiently hard ceramic. The penetrator flattens its nose against the ceramic without penetrating into the ceramic for up to several microseconds, with penetrator material flowing laterally across the face of the ceramic until the ceramic starts to crack. As soon as cracks form, the lateral flow stops and penetration resumes. This effect is also called "dwell" in some publications. Silicon Carbide is excellent for producing this effect.
More Ti-6Al-4V is used as the bulk of the armor after the encased SiC, which has a superior mass efficiency relative to RHA, while its thickness efficiency is a bit lower (about 0.9:1).
The chassis is located behind this, with Dyneema being used as a spall liner. In Lamonian Main Battle Tanks, the chasis would likely consist of RHA. As Adversus will also be exported on a case-by-case basis, the chasis composition will undoubtedly change for export customers.
Adversus will be exported on a case by case basis, to nations specially trusted by LAIX ARMS. Resale of Adversus is not permitted, and result in serious consequences.
DPRs for Adversus run for 700 million standard dollars. Again, this is only available to nations trusted by LAIX ARMS.