This is from my Complete Whitetail Addict's Manual:
White-tailed Deer Communicative Vocalizations
Through research we know that deer use different sounds to keep in contact with each other (Social Contact); to express alarm and distress (Alarm/Distress); to solicit attention from and respond to does and fawns (Maternal/Neonatal); to express dominance/threaten other deer (Agonistic). Deer also make sounds associated with courtship and breeding behavior (Mating). The statistics on whitetail vocalizations are based on studies by Dr. Larry Marchinton.
To see the statistics on these call (duration, tone, pitch etc.) log on to the Whitetail Communication page at www.trmichels.com/WhitetailCommunication.htm
The tone of the call usually depends on the deer. Larger deer, especially bucks, tend to make deeper sounds.
The Snort is an intense blowing sound produced by expelling air through the nostrils, best described as a loud whew, or whew-whew-whew; it may also sound like a whistle. It may be heard farther than 1/4 mile. Deer that see or hear a disturbance but cannot smell the source often use repeated low snorts, foot stomping, head bobbing and tail flipping, possibly to alert other deer of danger. The head bobbing and foot stomping may be used to startle a predator into moving and giving itself away. A deer's sense of smell is thought to be independent of conscious discrimination, and deer that smell danger usually snort, then flee while flagging the tail.
The Bawl is an intense call used by deer of all ages when they are in distress, often when caught by a predator , trapped or injured. The sound is a loud baa. Does often respond to the call by running in, presumably out of maternal instinct.
The Grunt is used in three different forms to express dominance or to threaten another deer.
The Low Grunt is used by both does and bucks throughout the year. It sounds like a soft guttural err. This is the first level of aggression, used along with body language to displace lesser deer. If the lesser animal does not move it is usually rushed and may be kicked with a forefoot by the dominant.
The Grunt-Snort is used most often by bucks during the breeding season in more intense situations. One or more snorts are added to a grunt; err-whew.
The Grunt-Snort-Wheeze is the most intense form of an aggressive call. It consists of a grunt-snort followed by a drawn out wheeze through pinched nostrils. The wheeze may sound like a whistle.
The Bellow is a long, very intense call that is probably a louder and longer version of a Grunt-Snort or Grunt-Snort-Wheeze.
Unless the deer is close you may not hear the Grunt or Snort of these calls.
Social Contact Calls
The Social Contact Grunt is often performed by members of a doe group when they become separated, and it may help deer stay in contact when they can't see each other. In one study only females performed this call. This call is longer than the Low Grunt and can be heard by humans as far as 100 meters. It may attract bucks during the breeding season.
The Maternal Grunt is a low, quick grunt performed at short intervals when a doe approaches the fawn's bedding site. The fawn generally leaves its bed and joins the doe. It is audible to humans for only a few meters. It is similar to a Low Grunt but often louder. It may be heard up to 100 yards away.
The Mew is used by the fawn when it wants attention, or is given in response to the Maternal Grunt of the doe.
The Bleat is the fawn version of the bawl, it is given by the fawn when it wants urgent attention, is hungry, or wants care, and may be heard as far as 100 meters by humans.
The Nursing Whine occurs while the fawn is nursing or searching for a nipple.
The Tending Grunt is a low grunt used by bucks when pursuing an estrus doe. It may consist of a single short grunt, several grunts or a long drawn out grunt. It is probably given to alert other deer of the presence of a dominant in order to keep them away; and to attract does.
The Tending Click is a clicking sound bucks may make when looking for of following estrus does. It sounds like someone slowly running a fingernail across the teeth of a comb. It appears to be a slow, drawn-out version of the Tending Grunt.
The Flehmen-sniff is a low sound produced during the lip curl, when air is inhaled to bring urine/pheromones in contact with the nose or vomeronasal organ, allowing the buck to determine the breeding readiness of the doe.
Although several call manufacturers, writers and speakers, claim there is an Estrus Doe Bleat or Doe Mating Call, no call of this nature was noted in the scientific studies I have read. These people may be referring to the Social Contact Grunt or a variation of it, used when the does are looking for their fawns or other relatives.
God bless and good hunting,